Nepal Khabar Online February 17, 2021

What is menstruation? What is the menstrual cycle?

Menstruation is a term – getting you period. The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system. The cycle is required for the production of oocytes and for the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy.

What does normal period mean?

A natural period is different for every woman through the average cycle is 28 days anything between 21 to 45 days is considered normal (24 days difference)

What are the signs of abnormal period? When should one go to visit a
gynecologist?

  1. Heavier menstrual flow2
  2. Period that lasts longer than 7 days3.
  3. Period that occurs less than 21 days or more than 35 days apart
  4. Periods accompanied by severe pain, cramping, nausea, and vomiting
  5. Bleeding or spotting between periods after menopause or following sex

What is premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and when does it occur?
What are the most common symptoms of PMS?

PMS is a combination of symptoms. It is a condition that affcets a woman’s emotions, physical health and behavior during certain days of menstrual cycle, generally just before her menses common- affects ~>90% of menstruating women.

Symptoms:

i. Mood swings

ii. Tender breast

iii. Food craving

iv. Fatigue

v. Irritability

vi. Depression

What are the reasons that cause irregular period?

In some cases, some girls and women have period in every two or three months. Is it common for females to get their period late or even miss their period?

Cause of Irregular period

i. Stess and lifestyles factors

ii. Birth control pills

iii. Uterine Fibroids or polyps

iv. Endometrisis

v. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

vi. Thyroid problem

vii. Excessive exercise

In puberty your periods might be irregular for first year or two

What is PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease)? Is there any Impact of PCOD on pregnancy?

PCOS- difficulty in getting pregnancy

During cycle, ovaries release an egg (ovum) into the uterus (womb). This ovulation actually occurs once a month. But PCOS often fail to ovulate or ovulate infrequently which means no or absent period so difficult to conceive.

What is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Can PCOS be cured?

Pcos is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens in female. Diagnosis

->Three findings

  1. Anovulation
  2. High androgen level
  3. Ovarian cyst

It is sometimes referred to as polycystic ovary disease where there is ultrasonic evidence of presence of ovarian cyst.

 No single test can diagnose PCOS.

i. History

ii. Examination

iii. Various blood test

iv. USG

Treatment possible, depends on your symptoms, age and weather you want to
become pregnant

PCOS (syndrome) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens in female.

What are most common myths about menstruation? 

o You’re clumsy.
o Tampons will break your hymen and make you impure.
o Can’t take a bath.
o Everybody gets PMS and it always manifests as – crankiness/irritability.
o Don’t go camping because the bears can smell it from far away.
o If you touch any vegetable before or during the pickling process they
would not pickle and would go bad.
o You get slapped on the face when you get your first period so you have
“beautiful” red cheeks all your life.

You can’t touch flowers because they’ll die quicker.
o You can’t enter a kitchen or cook food for anyone else.
 You can’t enter a place of worship.
  You can only enter a place of prayer once you’ve washed your hair on or after the fourth day.

  If you wash your hair, your flow will be less and it will affect your fertility later in life.

These are some of the questions that our readers have:

  1. What can I do to ease my period cramps?
    Rest, plenty of fluids, use hot bag, medication
  2. Is it normal for young girls to bleed for more than 20 days?
    In puberty first cycles may be prolonged, but it is not normal for young girls to bleed for
    20 days
  3. Should one take pills to delay periods? Does it have any side effect?
    Sometimes if needed can take pills under guidance
  4. How Can I Control PMS Symptoms?
    Symptomatic relief
  5. Are sanitary products bad for your health? Do you suggest menstrual cups, tampons or pads?
    No not bad
    If used properly you can use whichever is convenient

Dr Una Pant
MBBS, MD (OBSTETRICIAN & GYANAECOLOGIST)

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