June 1, 2023 by 1 Comment

Introduction To The Dengue Fever:

The Dengue virus is the virus that causes the mosquito-transmitted illness dengue. In this instance, female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the carriers of the dengue virus. These dengue mosquitoes are ubiquitous and also often bite throughout the day (Both inside and outside the house). It has been observed that these mosquitoes are most active during dawn as well as in twilight. Only 6 to 10 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito might the symptoms start to appear.

The four different serotypes of this virus, which may infect humans, are carried by mosquitoes that cause dengue fever. The aforementioned serotypes refer to a group of bacteria that are unusually closely related. These germs can only be recognized because they have antigens that are somewhat different from one another that is slightly different from one and cause the body to produce antibodies that are different from one another. In our nation and other subtropical and tropical areas of the world, these illness cases are more prevalent.

Early signs of disease :

A rash, fever, and other minor signs of various illnesses might be mistaken for dengue’s milder symptoms. The illness with any of the following symptoms is depicted in a human body graphic:
⦁ joint pain,
⦁ nausea/vomiting,
⦁ rash, bone pain,
⦁ eye discomfort, headache,
⦁ muscle pain
Fever accompanied by one or more of the following is the most typical sign of the illness:
⦁ Vomiting and nauseous Rash
⦁ Muscle, joint, or bone discomfort, as well as aches and pains, are all potential warning signs.
⦁ The normal duration of dengue symptoms is 2–7 days. After roughly a week, the majority of people will recover.

Within a few hours, the symptoms of this can become life-threatening. An urgent medical situation is a severe dengue.

Symptoms of dengue
Symptoms of dengue (Parkway East Hospital)

Severe Dengue:

One in twenty patients with this illness will get severe dengue. Shock, internal hemorrhage, and even death can occur as a result of severe dengue. You are more prone to have severe dengue if you have previously had dengue. The risk of severe dengue is increased in infants and pregnant women.

Symptoms of severe dengue:
Keep an eye out for severe symptoms and indications of this virus. After your fever has subsided for 24-48 hours, warning signals often start to appear.

If you or a member of your family exhibits any of the symptoms listed below, visit an urgent care facility or emergency hospital every once.

i. Belly soreness and discomfort
ii. Vomiting (at least 3 times in 24 hours)
iii. bleeding gums or emanating from the nose
iv. Blood in the stool or vomiting blood
v. feeling worn out, restless, or aggravated

Taking care of severe dengue:
i. Visit a healthcare professional or head straight to the emergency department if you notice any warning signals.
ii. An urgent medical situation is severe dengue. It necessitates urgent medical attention at a clinic or hospital.
iii. When traveling, look for medical care.

Medication for Dengue:

⦁ The treatment for dengue is not a specific medication.
⦁ See your doctor and take care of the symptoms.
In case you suspect dengue:
⦁ If you get a fever or dengue symptoms, see a doctor. Tell them about your journey.
⦁ Get as much rest as you can.
⦁ Use acetaminophen to reduce pain and reduce fever 
⦁ Take neither ibuprofen nor aspirin!
⦁ To keep hydrated, consume lots of liquids. Drink water or beverages that have electrolytes added.
⦁ Care for a sick newborn, kid, or family member at home if they only have minor symptoms.

Identification of The Virus:

Dengue virus isolation, serum testing, and other molecular techniques can all be used to determine whether the virus is present in the blood cells. A few blood tests to examine the total number of red blood cells, and blood platelets, and other physical examinations performed by the doctor are permitted for a patient with this illness to determine whether the symptoms are brought on by a dengue infection.

Elimination of The Virus:

The patient ought to get adequate bed rest, especially on days when the fever is at its worst, and take time off from work, school, kindergarten, or daycare.

People who have dengue should stay at home until they are no longer contagious and avoid areas where they may be bitten by mosquitoes (around 3-5 days).

 As, Aedes mosquitoes love to reproduce in stagnant, clean water, which may be found readily next to human habitats, therefore make sure your surroundings are free of any water logging problems to prevent this sickness.

There is currently no vaccination available to protect against the dengue virus.
⦁ The sole defense is to stay away from mosquito bites. Wear tracksuit bottoms and long-sleeved shirts to hide your blemishes.
⦁ Use of nets, traps, and insect repellents.
⦁ To prevent dengue mosquitoes from entering, keep all the doors and windows closed, especially during dawn, twilight, and early evening.
⦁ Remove all the trash and clear up any standing water to keep your surroundings tidy.

Dengue Vaccine Development:

There is now just one fever vaccine authorized in 11 nations. Researchers from both the public and business sectors are working on many vaccinations. The virus that can cause the illness has four different serotypes, therefore for the vaccine to be successful, it must immunize against all four. Due to antibody-dependent augmentation, infection with a different serotype after receiving a vaccination against just one serotype might result in severe dengue hemorrhagic shock. The immune system creates cross-reactive antibodies after a virus infection to give protection against that specific serotype.

The virus can proliferate inside the macrophage and cause sickness after being “neutralized” by macrophages. These inefficient, cross-reactive antibodies facilitate viral entry into macrophages, which results in a more severe illness. In areas where dengue is endemic, women who have the disease frequently give birth to children who carry the mother’s immunity and are vulnerable to hemorrhagic fever if exposed to any of the other three serotypes. In 2012, one vaccine was undergoing phase III trials, and preparations for a surveillance program for vaccination efficacy had begun.

One of the vaccinations reportedly performed poorly in clinical testing in September 2012.

The first dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV), manufactured by Sanofi-Pasteur, was approved for use in endemic regions in people aged 9 to 45 in late 2015 and early 2016.

Preventive measure for dengue
Preventive measure for dengue (Twitter)

Drug Studies For Dengue Vaccine:

There are no direct antiviral therapies for dengue fever that have been authorized. Inhibition of the NS2B/NS3 protease or NS5 proteins has been the focus of the majority of antiviral medication development for dengue infections. According to reports, tailored covalent inhibitors have been the major focus of protease inhibitor strategies. One medication, Balapiravir, a reformulated NS5 polymerase inhibitor for hepatitis C, advanced to a Phase II clinical study before being discontinued for lack of effectiveness.

Transmission Of The Virus :

By way of Mosquito Bites:
The bites of infected Aedes species mosquitoes transmit the virus to humans (Ae. aegypti ). These are the same mosquito species that transmit the Chikungunya and zika viruses.
⦁ These mosquitoes often deposit their eggs in water-holding containers including buckets, bowls, animal dishes, flower pots, and vases close to areas where there is standing water.
⦁ Mosquitoes are found both indoors and outdoors close to people, where they like to bite.
⦁ Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika-carrying mosquitoes bite both during the day and at night.
⦁ When a mosquito bites a host who has the virus, it becomes infected. The virus can then be transmitted to further persons by infected mosquito bites.

A Mother and her child:
When a woman is pregnant or shortly after giving birth, she can transmit the virus related to this illness to her fetus.
There has only ever been one confirmed case of dengue spreading through breast milk. Mothers are advised to breastfeed even in dengue-risk areas because of the advantages of doing so.
Even exposures from contaminated blood, laboratories, or medical facilities. Rarely, a needle stick injury, organ transplant, or blood transfusion can spread dengue.

Evaluation Of The Disease:

i. Blood is placed in a test tube for laboratory analysis.
ii. If you have dengue symptoms and reside in or have recently visited a region where dengue is a danger, consult a healthcare professional.
iii. Inform your healthcare practitioner if you recently visited a region where dengue is a danger.
iv. The only method to confirm the diagnosis is through a blood test.
v. Blood tests may be requested by your doctor to check for dengue or other related viruses like Zika or chikungunya.

Mosquito avoidance:

Everyone Can Help With Mosquito Control Professionals from regional mosquito control districts or local health departments create mosquito control strategies, carry out procedures to eliminate larvae and adult mosquitoes and assess the success of their efforts.
You may take action to lessen mosquitoes in and around your house, in your community, and in the region as a whole.

Also read: 6 Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia – The Latest Online News